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Bordeaux 2016: Bruno Rolland

Last December, during my little tour of Bordeaux to taste the 2014s, I called in on Bruno Rolland at Château Léoville-Las-Cases. Bruno has his finger on the pulse of what happens across all the Delon domaines, not just here in St Julien but also at Château Potensac, up in the Médoc, and on the opposite bank, at Château Nenin, in Pomerol. Here’s what Bruno (pictured below) had to say on the 2016 vintage.

Bordeaux 2016

Me: What is 2016 like as a vintage?

Bruno: It is a vintage with good ripeness at harvest, giving us very beautiful raw material, but with a racy structure. The quality is at a very high level. We plan to do the assemblage tomorrow, so we shall know more of the vintage then.

Me: Were there any particular difficulties with the vintage?

Bruno: The young vines had a bit of difficulty in the heat. There was a long period of very dry weather. The old vines did better during this time.

Me: Is it similar to any other recent vintages?

Bruno: I think at Leoville-Las-Cases 2016 is closest to the style of 2006 and 2010.

Me: What sort of style is that?

Bruno: Here at Léoville-Las-Cases the wines have ended up quite powerful, with very firm tannins, but the acidity keeps them fresh.

Me: Sounds good – thanks for your time Bruno.

These early Bordeaux 2016 reports are essentially funded by Winedoctor subscribers, the first purpose of this latest trip to Bordeaux having been to taste 2014s for a forthcoming report on that vintage. If you find these reports interesting, please consider taking out a subscription to Winedoctor, for just £4.50 per month (or £45 per annum).

Bordeaux Primeurs, April 2017: Programme

The Union des Grands Crus de Bordeaux have released details of this year’s tasting programme, commencing April 3rd. I have already made most of my appointments (yes, really) and so I was eager to see whether their schedule fits in with mine. Fortunately it does!

The most noteworthy change (from my point of view) is a change in venue for the UGC tastings. Last year the press tastings were held in the Stade de Bordeaux, outside the Rocade. Some visitors weren’t too happy about it, but I thought it was a good venue, with lots of space, good sommelier service to pour the wines, and good natural light (once we managed to get the blinds down a bit). Having said that, I didn’t have anything to compare it to, as it was the first time I went to the press tastings, having previously preferred to fly undercover at the trade tastings.

This year the UGC tastings move to Hangar 14, on the Quai des Chartrons, looking out onto the river. The building looks like a concrete prison wing (complete with mesh grills on the windows), but I have never been inside, so it could be a great venue. Here is a link if you are interested, and here’s the location on Googlemaps.

Otherwise, briefly, the programme looks pretty similar to last year:

Monday 3rd April – Sauternes and Barsac press tasting in the appellation, also a stand-up tasting of all appellations in two-hour slots at Hangar 14, this latter tasting open to the trade.

Tuesday 4th April – Hangar 14 for Graves, Pessac-Leognan, St Emilion, Pomerol, Sauternes and Barsac press tasting, selected visits in the afternoon (new). Stand-up tastings in appellations (see below) are open to the trade.

Wednesday 5th April – Hangar 14 for all Médoc appellations and Sauternes and Barsac press tasting, selected visits in the afternoon (new). Stand-up tastings in appellations (see below) are open to the trade.

Thursday 6th April – Stand-up tastings in appellations (see below) are open to the trade.

Appellation tastings on the 4th/5th/6th which are open to the trade are as follows:

Ch. Carbonnieux – Graves and Pessac-­‐Léognan
Ch. La Couspaude – Saint Emilion Grand Cru
Ch. La Pointe – Pomerol
Ch. Cantemerle – Médoc, Haut Médoc, Moulis & Listrac
Ch. Kirwan – Margaux
Ch. Talbot – Saint Julien
Ch. Batailley – Pauillac & Saint Estèphe
Ch. La Lagune – Sauternes & Barsac

This is just the bare bones of the week – for more details including times contact the Union des Grands Crus de Bordeaux.

Bordeaux 2016: Jean-Christophe Mau

During my recent tastings of the 2014 vintage (report to come very soon) I found myself heading out from Château La Mission Haut-Brion, where I had just finished tasting all the Domaine Clarence Dillon wines (so Château Haut-Brion as well, reds, whites and second wines, and Château Quintus too) in the direction of Château d’Yquem. My route took me past the gate of Château Brown (well, almost – maybe just a small detour). What else to do but call in and see how the 2014 Château Brown was tasting?

I tasted the red 2014 with proprietor Jean-Christophe Mau (pictured below). There was no chance of tasting the white; this cuvée is in great demand, and Jean-Christophe was entirely sold out. That gave me a few minutes of free time, so I thought I had better ask how the 2016 vintage was looking. After all, in a region known for its hyperbole, you can rely on Jean-Christophe for an honest, no-nonsense appraisal of things.

Bordeaux 2016

Me: Can you please tell me a little about 2016?

J-C: The 2016 vintage is a bigger style than 2015. I have tasted them side by side. In 2016 the acidity is higher, presumably because of the stress in vineyard. We had a long dry summer, and the vines shut down in these conditions. From September onwards we had some rain, but the time between the arrival of the rain and the need to pick was too short for the vines to be able to get the acids down.

The tannins feel large, but it is difficult to say more at the moment. I will look at the tannins again after a year of evolution. But with these tannins and acidity the wine should keep well.

Me: What about picking and alcohol levels?

J-C: We started picking the reds on October 3rd, and finished on October 22nd. Obviously the whites were picked much earlier than that. In 2016 the alcohols varied at picking between 14.5% and 15%. This is for Château Brown of course. I can’t comment on other châteaux and what they have in 2016, but I assume it is something similar.

Me: Is it better than 2015?

J-C: I think to say 2016 is better right now is a little arrogant. We will need to wait and see.

Me: Although you sold Château Preuillac, in the Médoc, I know you still manage it for the new owner. How did the vintage go up there?

J-C: We had a similar experience at Preuillac, although we started picking slightly later, starting October 6th and finishing October 21st. I think here 2016 could be a great vintage. We haven’t finished the malolactic fermentations yet, but it seems like the quality is very good.

Me: Thanks Jean-Christophe.

These early Bordeaux 2016 reports are essentially funded by Winedoctor subscribers, the first purpose of this latest trip to Bordeaux having been to taste 2014s for a forthcoming report on that vintage. If you find these reports interesting, please consider taking out a subscription to Winedoctor, for just £4.50 per month (or £45 per annum).

Bordeaux 2016: Jean-Michel Comme

It is only January, which to the UK wine trade means Burgundy, London having just hosted a smorgasbord of tastings featuring the 2015 vintage. And yet my thoughts are turning towards Bordeaux. First, after my latest trip to Bordeaux in December I have a few new reports and tastings to write up. Second, I am currently working on a huge tasting report on the 2014 vintage. And third, because I am already looking at the organisation of my trip to taste the 2016 vintage in April. Well, you know what they say about the early bird and the worm.

With that in mind here is some opinion on the 2016 vintage from Jean-Michel Comme (pictured below, I confess an older picture from 2013), of Château Pontet-Canet. I met up with Jean-Michel in the cellars to taste the estate’s 2014, but couldn’t resist asking for his early thoughts on 2016.

Bordeaux 2016

Me: Can you please tell me a little about 2016?

J-M: This was an amazing year, because from early on in the season we could not have foreseen the evolution of the vintage. At the start it was cold and wet, but during the last days of June the weather changed, when it became dry and hot. It was then mostly dry, for three months, with almost no rain at all. The concentration in the grapes in this vintage was amazing.

Me: How was the harvest? What would you say about the quality this year? And what about your yields?

J-M: There was no hurry, no rush, we were able to prepare the crop as we wished. There was a high level of ripeness in this vintage. As for quality, it is really very difficult to tell right now, although I think the worst case scenario is that we have, at the very least, a very good year in 2016. As for yields, we have 34 hl/ha.

Me: Yields can be impacted by organic and biodynamic viticulture, and of course we all know Pontet-Canet is biodynamic, so 34 hl/ha seems like a good yield?

J-M: Some people make some unfair comments about yields at Pontet-Canet – because of the biodynamics they say one year in three we produce nothing, that we have a crop missing. In truth the average yield here, over ten years, is 33 hl/ha. That is including the very low yield we saw in the 2013 vintage. Also, this yield is good for us, because we know what quality we will obtain with a yield like this. We don’t know what the quality would be like with a yield that was 10 or 20 hl/ha higher. As it stands, we have high quality, so it is not a big deal for us to stick with this yield.

Me: Thanks Jean-Michel. Before I go, what else is new at Pontet-Canet?

J-M: Well, we are still building stables for our horses, we have building works planned for another year yet. And we now have a Californian estate as well, in the Napa Valley, which takes some of our energy, but it is a great project for us. We have tried to apply our biodynamic approach in 2016, our first season. I am responsible for the estate, so I have been visiting California every six weeks. Having said that, although I am not a fan of dynasties, I leave the day-to-day running to my son.

Me: Thanks again.

These early Bordeaux 2016 reports are essentially funded by Winedoctor subscribers, the first purpose of this latest trip to Bordeaux having been to taste 2014s for a forthcoming report on that vintage. If you find these reports interesting, please consider taking out a subscription to Winedoctor, for just £4.50 per month (or £45 per annum).

January Break

January isn’t usually a month when I take a break from regular Winedoctor updates, but this January has turned out to be rather different. I am having a slightly enforced break from regular updates until January 16th.

Last Saturday I flew out to the Loire Valley (via Bordeaux believe it or not – that felt weird) in order to take possession of a house I purchased. I knew I wouldn’t have time to make updates this week, but had intended to make that clear in a blog post such as this. Unfortunately internet access has been more difficult than anticipated, so please accept my apologies for this late ‘announcement’!

I have no phone line or wifi and although I spent a morning in an Orange shop today, and I now have all the necessary equipment, I doubt my line will be switched on until the weekend. So radio silence will continue. In case you’re wondering, I am posting this from my phone via dodgy 3G.

It is only Tuesday, but in the last three days I hired a van, bought and transported a pile of new furniture, collected my keys, half-sorted a phone line, signed the final documents with my notaire, made some basic repairs and met the neighbours (not in that order I have to say).

I will have time for one or two visits – I have one this afternoon in Bourgueil. And please rest assured normal service will be restored ASAP.

Pouring Cold Water on the Biodynamic Calendar

Biodynamics was dreamt up by Rudolf Steiner. If you read his original lectures, it is all pretty fanciful stuff. Nevertheless many winemakers I have questioned on their switch to using biodynamics in the vineyard have a very positive view of it. Vines are stronger, greener, more vigorous and so on. And the wines are often very good. There are many confounding variables in this (i.e there are many other plausible explanations for why this might be), but in view of these encounters and my tasting experiences I have always kept an open mind.

One aspect of biodynamics that I have long struggled with, however, is the relationship between the biodynamic calendar and tasting. When it comes to the calendar and the vine, I again remain open minded, as external influences (by which I really mean the lunar cycle) could plausibly influence vine growth and behaviour. But the biodynamic calendar is often said to also influence tasting ability; if you subscribe to this notion, wines taste great on a fruit day, bad on a root day. This is often backed up by anecdotal experience, but this is very weak evidence which is open to bias. What we need is a well-designed study to examine the effect. Well, one has just been published.

The paper (published here, in Plos One) comes from New Zealand and the authors (Wendy V. Parr, Dominique Valentin, Phil Reedman, Claire Grose, James A. Green) examined how 19 experienced tasters (mostly oenologists) viewed 12 different wines (all New Zealand Pinot Noir) on root days compared to fruit days. For once (because I have read some ropey and badly written wine research over the years) it is a well-designed study and well-written paper. The tasters were blinded to the purpose of the tasting, and they assessed the wines across two occasions 7-9 days apart, looking at 20 specific wine characteristics.

Biodynamic tasting

The outcome, to cut to the chase, was that the assessment of the wines showed no difference across the two episodes. This is despite the fact that the authors used a very lenient significance level (p = 0.1) rather than the more stringent norm (p = 0.05). They did a lot of statictical tests, which increases the likelihood of a chance finding, and yet despite this the findings were extremely close comparing fruit and root days (as in the graph above). Only three of the 20 characteristics showed a statistically significant difference across the two tastings. These were ‘concentration’, ‘bitterness’ and ‘oak integration’. Of these three, only ‘concentration’ matched the expected finding if you subscribe to the biodynamic calendar (better on a fruit day), the other two were the opposite of expected (more ‘bitterness’ on a fruit day, more ‘oak integration’ on a root day). These seem to me to be chance findings – they certainly don’t support the idea that there is a working ‘tasting calendar’.

Perhaps most damning of all, the variation between the findings on the fruit and root day tastings was just 0.5%, less than that seen when tastings were replicated on the same day, when it was 1%. In other words, the wines taste pretty much the same, whether you taste them twice on the same day, or on a root day versus a fruit day. There’s no difference. This well-designed and communicated study surely puts a nail in the coffin of the biodynamic tasting calendar, which I suspect should be combined to the dustbin along with astrological star signs and spoon-bending.

New Year, New Monthly Subscription

Although I am not a great believer in New Year’s Resolutions, as I think I might have mentioned in today’s Weekend Wine report, the start of a new year does seem like a good time to change something. So I have decided to update the options for subscribing to Winedoctor.

First, during 2017 the annual fee for a Winedoctor subscription will remain (for the fifth year running) £45, giving twelve months of access to all Winedoctor articles. It is a popular plan with plenty of Loire-minded and Bordeaux-interested subscribers signed up to it, and I see no reason to change it.

Winedoctor subscriptions

What I have changed, however, is the old ‘trial period with optional top-up’ subscription, which I have replaced with a monthly payment plan called Winedoctor Monthly. This subscription costs just £4.50 for one calendar month of access, on a monthly recurring basis. Subscribers can therefore dip their toe in the Winedoctor water for one month for just £4.50, a much cheaper alternative to the old trial period (which was either £10 or £15, depending on how far back you look). And there is no commitment to keep going; you can cancel at any time you like.

To subscribe (either for an annual or monthly subscription), click here or on the green Subscribe poster, above left.

Looking Back, Looking Forward: From 2016 to 2017

As 2016 draws to a close I can’t resist some brief reflections on the year that has passed. I haven’t made my usual sequence of ‘Wine in Context’ posts (like these from 2016) this year, simply because I have had too much on my plate over the past few week to ruminate that much. It has been a madcap race to the end of the year! It makes me wonder why this time of year is often referred to as the ‘holiday season’ – it hasn’t seemed like much of a holiday so far.

The year has been rich with interesting bottles, but I have a confession to make. I find lists of “here are my best 25 bottles of the year” a little boring, and also a little detached. Wine is about context; sure, when it comes to critiquing wine to aid buying decisions, there isn’t really any valid method other than lists of tasting notes and scores (anyone who comes up with a new system that works is going to make a big name for him/herself very quickly). But when it comes to looking back over the year for your ‘best bits’, is that really the way we should think about wine?

Reflecting on 2016 I think the ‘wine moment’ that really stands out for me was my visit to meet Alphonse Mellot Senior (pictured below) in July. I spent perhaps three hours in his company, scampering through the Alphonse Mellot cellars in the heart of Sancerre, enthralled by his anecdotes and his confidently voiced opinions. The fact that the wines were fabulous also helped of course. And what is more, these aren’t ultra-rare unicorn wines from the 1940s, as anybody with a few quid can buy and drink his wines. I necked the entry-level 2015 Sancerre Blanc just last week, widely available, very affordable, and it was great. Although it was perhaps the 2012 Cuvée Edmond that most impressed during the visit, as well as a whole host of red wines.

Looking back, looking forward: From 2016 to 2017

Was there an equivalent wine moment in Bordeaux this year? Yes, and I think my visit to Château Cos d’Estournel in December was the highlight. It wasn’t the lunch I shared with Aymeric de Gironde and Dominique Arangoïts that made the visit so enjoyable, nor was it the wines we drank (2008, 2005, 2003 and 1989) even though there were three great wines there. I enjoyed the visit so much firstly because we took a really good tour of the vineyards together, something that is rare during a visit in besuited-Bordeaux. And because it was great to taste the different varities of 2016 from vat; this is a vintage with a lot of promise, a year in which Bordeaux seems to have done rather well when much of France was blighted by the spring frosts.

These were my two highlights of 2016, but there were lots of other great wine moments. In the Loire I enjoyed calling in on Henri Bourgeois, where I expanded my knowledge of Sancerre’s ability to age, I raced down to La Tour Saint Martin to taste the latest from Bertrand Minchin, tasting the 2014s and 2015s with Matthieu Baudry was great fun (and the wines promise a lot….I mean, in 2015, a lot), and I found the same joy at Charles Joguet. I called in on Domaine de la Noblaie during the summer, and just before harvest, both visits informative and fun, and I enjoyed checking out the vines with Benoit Amirault too. In Bordeaux I had a fine vertical tasting and dinner at Château Lagrange that sticks in the memory, but on the whole I try to avoid the boozy party scene in this region. There is a continued potential for conflict of interest here I wish to avoid.

I had a few good dinners during the course of the year, the most memorable at La Tour in Sancerre, and Social Wines & Tapas in London. Yes, there are plenty of stuffy restaurants that offer more ‘fine’ dining experiences than that second choice (and I dined at a few), but it was one of those dinners where everything went so well, and the meal seemed to build in a crescendo of delights, that it left a lasting impression on my taste buds.

Looking back, looking forward: From 2016 to 2017

As for other significant developments during 2016, it was great to see that Richard Leroy seems to be able to continue hitting the bull’s eye with his zero-sulphur wines; I must check in on the 2011 (the first zero-suphur vintage) sometime soon. I was delighted by the revitalisation of Domaine aux Moines by Tessa Laroche (pictured above), and by my discovery of Domaine Jaulin-Plaisantin. I enjoyed greatly trips to London to taste on Decanter panels (the Decanter World Wine Awards and three panel tastings for the magazine – the most recent, looking at Loire Chenin Blanc, yet to be published), and looking back to Bordeaux 2006 at Ten Years (a large tasting) and Loire 2006 at Ten Years (not such a large tasting), as well as many more recent vintages of course.

I capped the year in a fabulous manner by buying a house in the Loire Valley. It is about 30 minutes south of Chinon. It has been a long and tiring process, co-ordinating a bank, an insurance company, an agent and a notaire, but we have at last jumped the final hurdle. We signed yesterday, December 30th (hurrah!!). So there is a lot to look forward to in 2017, with my first trip out to Winedoctor House (I did think about rechristening it as that, but actually settled for something more generic) set for January 7th. Looking forward to 2017, expect more reports from Chinon, Bourgueil and St Nicolas de Bourgueil…..

Best wishes for a Happy New Year to all!

Those we Lost in 2016

It feels as though 2016 has seen more than its fair share of losses in the entertainment industry, from David Bowie at the very dawn of the year, through to Carrie Fisher in the past few days. And some, such as comedy actress Caroline Aherne and of course George Michael (and many others) left us tragically young.

Sadly, as 2016 draws to an end, I have also been struck by how many significant figures from the world of wine have left us this year. As the year began the news that Charly Foucault of Clos Rougeard had died on December 29th 2015 was still very fresh in my mind, but sadly there were many more to come as 2016 unfolded.

Bordeaux lost two leading lights during the course of the year, the first being Paul Pontallier (aged 59, in March), on the eve of the primeurs. Paul has rightly been credited with being largely responsible for the revitalisation of Château Margaux, and I was lucky enough to meet and taste with him many times over the past few years, sometimes in large groups, sometimes just the two of us. He was always warm-hearted and generous with his time. He is pictured below with his son, Thibaud, back in April 2012. For more thoughts on Paul, read my blog post, R.I.P. Paul Pontallier, Man of Margaux.

Paul and Thibaud Pontalier, April 2012

The second loss to Bordeaux was Denis Dubourdieu (aged 67, in July), one of the region’s most famed and respected oenologists, as well as being proprietor of several notable domaines, not least Château Doisy-Daëne. Denis had been ill for some time, but he was still on sparkling form when I visited him late in 2015, when I took the picture below. I wrote up the visit here, complete with some reflections on Denis’ achievements.

Denis Dubourdieu, October 2015

Looking elsewhere in France, I think everybody who knew him was shocked to learn of the death of Etienne Hugel (in April, aged 57). I met Etienne many years ago, in September 2004, and we had dinner together in Liverpool. He was charming, dynamic and enthusiastic, traits which of course only made his passing at such a young age all the more shocking.

Another famous figure in the world of wine who we lost this year, and who also played a significant role in my vinous ‘education’, was Aimé Guibert (aged 91, in May). Aimé was of course best-known for Mas de Daumas Gassac, but I first encountered his wines through the label Mas de Figaro, in the 1992 vintage to be precise, a brilliant value wine which I was delighted to be able to drink as a penniless student barely able to rub two overdrawn bank statements together. Within a few years (when I was earning!) I moved on to Mas de Daumas Gassac itself, but the memory of those good-value Figaro wines has never left me.

Other famous names in the world of wine who have left us this year include Italian revolutionary Giacomo Tachis (aged 82) and Californian Peter Mondavi (aged 101) in February, Henri Bonneau (aged 78) of Châteauneuf du Pape fame in March, Louis Latour (aged 83) in April and Charles Rousseau (aged 93) in May, both from famed Burgundian domaines of course, as well as Margrit Mondavi (aged 91), the widow of Robert Mondavi, in September, and Stanko Radikon (aged 62), Italian natural wine pioneer in the same month.

Winedoctor 2016 Disclosures

November and December have been super-busy, bringing another very active year to an end. I feel like I have been pedalling very hard the past six or seven weeks, and yet barely keeping up with the peloton (a cycling analogy purely for Jim Budd’s pleasure). As I write this it is only a couple of days until Christmas kicks off, but I haven’t had one spare moment to stop and reflect on the year, my favourite bottles, or my favourite tastings or dinners. In addition, I think the best ‘moment’ of the year – relating to a ‘project’ I have been working on in France – is yet to come, hopefully next week. Only after that moment will I really be able to catch my breath and reflect on the past twelve months…..

In the meantime, here are the annual Winedoctor disclosures for 2016. As always I have detailed support received, followed by some details of my own expenses incurred by undertaking various tastings and trips. On the whole this year has been more straightforward than 2015 and 2014. There were no surcharges for going over a mileage allowance hidden in the small print of the hire car contract (hurrah!). There were no speeeding tickets incurred between Paris and Saumur (hurrah!). There were no cancelled trips because of illness (hurrah!). The only hitch was having to live in a Gatwick hotel for two days, thanks to a French air traffic control strike. Interested deities looking for a new model for purgatory should feel free to get in touch for more details on my experiences there.

Here are details of trips when support was accepted:

Salon des Vins de Loire: No formal funding was accepted. I did accept two dinner invitations, one with a trio of Anjou vignerons, these being René Papin (Claude’s son), Vincent Ogereau and Yves Guégniard, and one with Loire courtier Charles Sydney. All other expenses I met myself (see below).
Bordeaux primeurs: My intention was to stay in Bordeaux for nine nights; thanks to a French air traffic control strike I spent the first two incarcerated in a Gatwick airport hotel, banging my head against a wall; I missed a visit I had arrranged to meet Peter Sisseck at Château Rocheyron (annoyed!) and a visit and vertical tasting at Château de Reignac (double annoyed!). I thus spent seven nights in Bordeaux, and I accepted offers of accommodation from Bill Blatch (one night, with barbecue and Sauternes tasting), Château Lagrange (one night, with a vertical tasting and dinner), Château Preuillac (two nights, uncatered) and Château La Dauphine (three nights, uncatered). I also took quick lunches at Château Haut-Bailly and Château Pichon-Baron. Other expenses I met myself (see below). Easyjet put me up in Gatwick and to give them credit this came with three meals a day, and was offered without me even having to ask for it. I was impressed by the actions of this ‘budget’ airline.
Loire Valley, October: I accepted accommodation for three nights (mostly self-catered) at Domaine de la Noblaie. I had dinner with proprietor Jérôme Billard on arrival, and also shared a pre-harvest lunch with his vineyard workers. Eggs from Jérôme’s hens came free of charge (and were delicious). Other expenses I covered myself (see below).
Bordeaux, December: I visited to taste the 2014s. I accepted accommodation in Château Preuillac (two nights, uncatered) and Château La Dauphine (three nights, uncatered). I accepted an invitation to lunch from Vignobles Fayat and Château Cos d’Estournel. Other expenses I met myself (see below).
Gifts received: I received a book as a gift from Hubert de Boüard de Laforest (written by Jane Anson – well done Jane!), as well as a few bottles from La Tour Saint-Martin, a bottle from Matthieu Baudry, a bottle from Benoit Amirault, several bottles from Domaine de la Noblaie. I don’t recall receiving any other gifts.
Samples received: A small number of wine samples were received, where the wines have been written up this has been declared. Most wines written up on Winedoctor are encountered at open tastings, or purchased.

This concludes the ‘support received’ section of my 2016 disclosures report. I try to keep support received to a minimum, but more important is to be transparent about exactly what support has been received, and the details presented above meet that requirement. In addition, where new articles have been published after support was received, this has been disclosed.

Winedoctor 2015 Disclosures

As is customary, I also like to balance this information with a report on which tastings and trips have been funded by me, or to be more precise by my subscribers.

Salon des Vins de Loire: All travel and accommodation expenses for the Salon des Vins de Loire were met by me; this included travel in the UK, flights, return rail fare in France, five nights accommodation in Angers and subsistence on all days but two.
Bordeaux primeurs: I met my travel costs myself; this includes travel in the UK, flights to Bordeaux via Gatwick, and hire car for nine days even if I only managed to use it for seven. I covered all my own subsistence expenses except for the lunches and dinners described above.
Loire Valley, July: I spent three weeks touring and tasting in the Loire Valley. I covered all costs, including driving to the Loire Valley, ferry tickets, accommodation in Chinon and Sancerre, and all subsistence expenses, myself. I rented dirt-cheap accommodation near Chinon, and super-expensive accommodation near Sancerre. The house near Chinon was better. How does that happen?
Loire Valley, October: Back to Chinon in late-September for a pre-harvest visit. I flew there via Poitiers, the smallest airport I have passed through in a long time (i.e. you queue up for the flight in the main hall, and then pass through security in a single lane, to a waiting room; airport shopping consists of a drinks vending machine – I liked it and will be going back!). After the disclosures above, I met my own costs, including travel in the UK, flights, hire car and most subsistence.
Bordeaux, December Visit: For this five-day trip to Bordeux I met my travel costs myself; this included transport in the UK, flights to Bordeaux, and hire car for five days. I accepted assistance with accommodation (as noted above). Other than one lunch, I paid for all my subsistence myself.
London, Bordeaux Grand Cru Classé tasting: As was the case last year, I was already in London judging at the Decanter World Wine Awards when this tasting was scheduled, and I took a day out of my judging schedule to attend this. I thus covered all my own travel costs.
Other London tastings: As always these were numerous, and included the Bordeaux Index 2006 tasting, the Loire Benchmark tasting, the Real Wine Fair, the Union des Grands Crus tasting of the 2014 vintage, the St Emilion Grand Cru Classé tasting at the Leadenhall Building (a great venue), the annual Cru Bourgeois tasting, the IMW Bordeaux tasting of the 2012 vintage and the RAW Wine Fair. In each case I paid for my entry fee where applicable (this only applies to the IMW tasting), travel inluding flights and airport transfers, and subsistence. Some tastings came with a free lunch (insert your own joke here).

This concludes my disclosures statement for 2016. Next week I may sit down for long enough to have some reflections on the year, and will (hopefully) be able to write about my biggest ‘moment’ of 2016.